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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: political, economic, personal, and social equality for people of all sexes and genders. Feminist movements mainly campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, and to have maternity leave. Feminists have also worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, and to protect everyone from rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have often been part of feminist movements.
Some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights, particularly in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women (including access to contraceptives and abortion), and the right to enter into contracts and own property. Feminism also works for men's liberation, because men are also harmed by traditional gender roles.
Because this isn't Wikipedia, this article should focus on feminism in relation to nonbinary people.
Trans-feminism is a form of intersectional feminism that seeks to understand how transgender people, especially trans women, are affected by sexism, and to fight for their legal and social rights.
The Transfeminist Manifesto, written by Emi Koyama, states two primary principles of transfeminism:
|«||First, it is our belief that each individual has the right to define his or her own identities and to expect society to respect them. This also includes the right to express our gender without fear of discrimination or violence. Second, we hold that we have the sole right to make decisions regarding our own bodies, and that no political, medical or religious authority shall violate the integrity of our bodies against our will or impede our decisions regarding what we do with them.||»|
See main section about transgender-exclusionary feminists in cissexism.
Transgender-exclusionary radical feminists (TERFs) are a biological essentialist subsect of feminism. They don’t believe that the construct of gender exists, they believe that the sex assigned at birth is what determines your position in the patriarchy . They are known for their vitriol and violence against trans women. First advocated by second-wave feminists such as Germaine Greer, this outlook is largely seen as harmful to the transgender community.
TERFs are known mostly for advocating and enacting violence against specifically trans women. Because they view trans women as men, they see them as a violent threat to women. This vitriol doesn't always extend to trans men, who they view as "lost women" who are seeking refuge in manhood from misogyny. TERFs also do not support nonbinary or genderqueer people's identities.
Xenofeminism is a feminist framework introduced by the Laboria Cuboniks collective in their 2015 manifesto The Xenofeminist Manifesto: A Politics for Alienation. Xenofeminism posits that gendered oppression can be defeated by abandoning the "laws of nature" and using technology (such as surgery, hormone therapy, biohacking, etc.) to help marginalized people.
- Koyama, Emi (26 July 2001). "The Transfeminist Manifesto" (PDF).
- "Greer's Folly". Press for Change. 28 June 1997. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- Young, Eris. They/Them/Their: A Guide to Nonbinary and Genderqueer Identities (2019). page 100.
- Dhillon, Dharmender S. (2020). "Xenofeminism by Helen Hester". Philosophy Now. Retrieved 3 May 2023.
- Holleb, Morgan Leb Edward (2019). The A-Z of Gender and Sexuality: From Ace to Ze. p. 310.
- "Feminist Perspectives on Trans Issues". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 8 January 2014. Content note: discusses transphobic views in depth, as well as trans-positive views.